SQLite Adapter Options#

The name of ZConfig section is <sqlite3>.

This adapter uses the built-in sqlite3 module provided by the Python standard library. It is available on Python 2.7 (including PyPy) and Python 3.6 and above (including PyPy3), as long as the underlying version of SQLite is at least 3.11. The best performance can be obtained by ensuring the underlying SQLite is at least 3.24.

A SQLite database can be used by multiple processes concurrently, but because it uses shared memory, those processes must all be on the same machine. The database files also should reside locally.

Using a persistent cache file is not supported with this driver and will be automatically disabled (cache-local-dir has no effect). In some cases, it may be advantageous to also disable RelStorage’s in-memory pickle cache altogether (cache-local-mb 0) and allow the operating system’s filesystem cache to serve that purpose.

This adapter supports blobs, but you still must configure a blob-cache-dir, or use a shared-blob-dir.


SQLite is limited to 8-byte signed integers for OIDs and TIDs (other database use unsigned integers). If you expect to go through more than nine quintillion objects, or use the database past the year 5908, SQLite might not be the right choice.

For more, see SQLite FAQ.

There is one required setting:


The path to a directory to hold the data.

Choosing a dedicated directory is strongly recommended. A network filesystem is generally not recommended.

Several files will be created in this directory automatically by RelStorage. Some are persistent while others are transient. Do not remove them or data corruption may result.

For information on backing this directory up, see the FAQ about backing up SQLite.

Optional settings include:


This can be set to “gevent sqlite3” to activate a mode that yields to the gevent loop periodically. Normally, sqlite3 gives up the GIL and allows other threads to run while executing SQLite queries, but for a gevent-based system, that’s not particularly helpful. This driver will call gevent.sleep() approximately every gevent_yield_interval virtual machine instractions executed by any given connection. (It’s approximate because the instruction count is tracked per-prepared statement. RelStorage uses a few different prepared statements during normal operations.)

The gevent sqlite driver supports RelStorage’s critical commit section.


Only used if the driver is gevent sqlite. The default is currently 100, but that’s arbitrary and subject to change. Choosing a specific value that works well for your application is recommended. Note that this will interact with the cache-local-mb value as that’s shared among Connections and could reduce the number of SQLite queries executed.

RelStorage configures SQLite to work well and be safe. For advanced tuning, nearly the entire set of SQLite PRAGMAs are available. Put them in the pragmas section of the configuration. For example, this configuration is meant to make SQLite run as fast as possible while ignoring safety considerations:

    data-dir /dev/shm
        synchronous off
        checkpoint_fullfsync off
        defer_foreign_keys on
        fullfsync off
        ignore_check_constraints on
        foreign_keys off

Particularly useful pragmas to consider adjusting include cache_size and mmap_size.

Setting wal_autocheckpoint to a larger value than the default may improve write speed at the expense of read speed and substantially increased disk usage. (A setting of 0 is not recommended.)

Setting max_page_count can be used to enforce a crude quota system.

The journal_mode cannot be changed.